Apigenin Dosage Guide

Apigenin Dosage Guide

Apigenin, a naturally occurring flavonoid found in various plants, has been gaining attention for its potential health benefits. From its antioxidant properties to its potential anti-inflammatory and anticancer effects, apigenin holds promise in promoting overall well-being.

However, like any supplement, understanding the appropriate dosage, along with potential risks and optimal intake, is crucial for maximizing its benefits while minimizing any adverse effects.

In this blog, we'll delve into the science behind apigenin, exploring its potential benefits for human health, the foods rich in this compound, and the potential side effects.

What is Apigenin?

Apigenin is a flavonoid, a class of compounds widely distributed in fruits, vegetables, and herbs. It is particularly abundant in parsley, celery, chamomile tea, and certain fruits such as apples and oranges. Flavonoids like apigenin are known for their antioxidant properties, which help protect cells from damage caused by free radicals.

Apigenin's role in promoting health and wellness is multifaceted. It doesn't just have anti-inflammatory properties and antioxidant effects; it's a compound that may even help combat a variety of health conditions.

Foods Rich in Apigenin

Apigenin is found in a variety of foods. Here's a list of some of the most common dietary sources:

  • Parsley

  • Celery

  • Celeriac

  • Chamomile Tea

  • Oregano

  • Sorghum

  • Oranges

  • Wheat Sprouts

  • Cilantro

  • Onions

  • Grapefruit

Consuming a diverse diet rich in fruits, vegetables, and whole grains can help ensure you get a good mix of nutrients, including apigenin.

Apigenin Benefits

Apigenin has been the subject of numerous studies due to its beneficial effects on the human body. From promoting sleep to potentially influencing testosterone levels, apigenin's diverse benefits make it a compelling compound.

Improves Sleep Quality

Apigenin has been shown to bind to GABA receptors in the brain. GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) is a neurotransmitter that inhibits brain activity, promoting relaxation and sleepiness. By enhancing GABA activity, apigenin may exert calming and sedative effects, facilitating the onset and maintenance of sleep. In a 2008 study, researchers found that apigenin exerted significant sedative effects in mice, potentially through its interaction with GABA receptors.

It possesses anxiolytic (anti-anxiety) properties, which may indirectly contribute to improved sleep quality. By reducing anxiety and promoting relaxation, apigenin can help alleviate the mental and emotional factors that often interfere with falling asleep and staying asleep. This is supported by a wealth of scientific literature including a 2024 study published in Frontiers in Nutrition that found dietary apigenin intake positively correlates with sleep quality in a large cohort of adults.

Apigenin may influence the activity of other neurotransmitters involved in sleep regulation, such as serotonin and melatonin. Serotonin is a precursor to melatonin, a hormone that regulates the sleep-wake cycle. By modulating the levels or activity of these neurotransmitters, apigenin may help synchronize circadian rhythms and promote a more regular sleep pattern.

Potentially Stimulates Testosterone Production

Testosterone is a key player in male fertility, contributing significantly to male development and sperm production. As men age, testosterone levels can decline, leading to a host of undesirable symptoms such as fatigue, erectile dysfunction, and decreased muscle mass.

Proponents of apigenin supplementation suggest that it may stimulate testosterone production or inhibit its breakdown, leading to increased levels of this hormone in the body. While research in this area is limited, Li et al. (2012) found that apigenin significantly increased testosterone production in mouse Leydig cells. This finding suggests that apigenin may directly stimulate steroidogenesis, the process by which testosterone is synthesized within Leydig cells. However, it's important to note that this study was conducted on mice, and further research is needed to confirm these findings in human subjects.

Reduces Stress and Anxiety

Apigenin has been linked to a reduction in anxiety symptoms. This calming effect is believed to stem from apigenin's ability to cross the blood-brain barrier and act on the central nervous system. It interacts with GABA receptors, increasing GABAergic transmission in the brain, and modulates serotonin receptors, elevating serotonin levels. Its anti-inflammatory properties, neuroprotective effects, and ability to promote neurogenesis also contribute to its potential to alleviate symptoms of anxiety and depression.

Research has supported that apigenin works by modulating brain monoamine, serotonin, and dopamine levels and interacting with the serotonergic pathway, increasing serotonin levels and BDNF expression. Apigenin's effects on reducing anxiety are evident as a 2016 study by Mao et al. (2016) on 179 participants found that those taking chamomile extract had significantly lower anxiety than participants in the placebo group, suggesting the potential efficacy of apigenin-rich chamomile in addressing anxiety.

Amsterdam et al. (2012) also examined the impact of chamomile extract in the treatment of Generalized Anxiety Disorder in a randomized controlled clinical trial. The results showed a significantly greater reduction in total Hamilton Depression Rating Scale scores, suggesting an antidepressant effect.

In addition, researchers suggest that apigenin also reduces the levels of cortisol (stress hormone) production in human adrenal cells, providing further evidence for its ability to reduce levels of stress and anxiety.

Regulates Blood Sugar

Apigenin may regulate blood sugar levels by enhancing insulin sensitivity, promoting glucose uptake by cells, inhibiting enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism, and reducing inflammation associated with insulin resistance.

For example, research suggests that apigenin significantly normalizes the fasting blood glucose level by normalizing plasma insulin levels and the β-cell function (cells that make insulin). These mechanisms contribute to improved glucose control and may be beneficial for individuals with diabetes or at risk of developing the condition. This is evident as Miao et al. (2022) discovered that apigenin improves glucose sensitivity and normalizes blood pressure in diabetic mice.

However, it's important to note that while these findings are promising, more research is needed to fully understand the extent of apigenin's impact on blood sugar regulation in humans.

Reduces the Development of Cancer Cells

Apigenin's role in cancer prevention and treatment is a hot topic in the medical research community. This plant compound has shown some promising results, especially in its ability to interfere with the cellular pathways that trigger and spread cancer.

In animal studies, apigenin has demonstrated its potential by reducing the development of skin tumors in mice. It does this by blocking an enzyme called COX-2, which is like a green light for cancer, promoting its growth and spread. By blocking this enzyme, apigenin effectively turns the light red, stopping cancer in its tracks.

A clinical trial involving patients with colon cancer found that those who took a daily flavonoid mixture, including apigenin, experienced zero cancer recurrence over four years. This is a promising result, suggesting that apigenin could be a valuable addition to cancer treatment regimens.

While human trials are still lacking, there's some encouraging evidence from epidemiological studies. These studies show that in populations where plant and flavonoid-rich diets are common, there's a decreased risk of cancer. This suggests that apigenin and other flavonoids could play a significant role in cancer prevention.

While more clinical trials are needed to fully understand apigenin's role in cancer prevention and treatment, the existing evidence is certainly encouraging. It's a reminder of the potential of plant compounds like apigenin in the fight against cancer.

Anti Inflammatory Properties

Apigenin's anti-inflammatory effects have been widely studied, particularly in animal models. Research indicates that apigenin intake may exert potent anti-inflammatory properties by modulating various pathways involved in the immune system response.

Studies suggest that apigenin can inhibit the production of pro-inflammatory molecules and cytokines, thereby attenuating inflammation in the body. These findings suggest that incorporating apigenin into one's diet or opting for an apigenin supplement may offer therapeutic potential for managing inflammatory conditions and supporting overall immune system health. In addition, Apigenin blocks CD38, an inflammatory enzyme that needs NAD+ to function. NAD+ (Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide). NAD+ is the master regulator of human metabolism sitting at the Krebs cycle, and without it, our cells cannot produce ATP or energy. CD38 competes for NAD+ consumption with other enzymes such as SIRTUINS and PARPs, responsible for processes related to longevity, DNA repair etc.

Apigenin Dosage Recommendations

The dosage of apigenin can vary greatly depending on the condition being treated. This is largely due to the fact that apigenin is a supplement and not a regulated medication. As such, it's important to remember that the dosage you choose should be based on your individual needs and circumstances.

Most commonly, 50 mg to 100 mg of apigenin is the dosage used in most supplements on the market. NMN's NAD+ Brain nootropic blend offers a carefully curated mix of ingredients, including 50 mg of apigenin per serving, crafted to deliver immediate cognitive enhancements while also nurturing long-term brain health. Integrating this blend into a well-rounded lifestyle encompassing nutritious eating, consistent exercise, and sufficient rest can unveil your mind's complete capabilities, enabling peak cognitive function across your lifetime. Due to it's apigenin content, NAD+ Brain prevents the leakage of NAD+ by blocking CD38. This not only ensures that processes like DNA repair and energy generation are running smoothly, but it also prevents neuroinflammation, a leading cause of aging in the human brain. 

It's important to note that while apigenin is generally safe, even at high dosages, there is a risk of experiencing side effects if a high dose is used. This is why it's crucial to start with a lower dose and gradually increase it if needed, always under the supervision of a healthcare provider.

Potential Side Effects of Apigenin

  • Allergic reactions: Some individuals may experience allergic reactions to apigenin, particularly if they have existing allergies to certain plants or pollen.

  • Interactions with medications: Apigenin may interact with certain medications, including blood thinners and drugs metabolized by the liver, potentially altering their effectiveness or causing adverse effects.

  • Gastrointestinal discomfort: High doses of apigenin or sensitive individuals may experience gastrointestinal symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea.

  • Hormonal effects: Apigenin has been shown to exert estrogenic activity in some studies, which could potentially affect hormone-sensitive conditions or medications.

  • Pregnancy and breastfeeding: Limited research exists on the safety of apigenin supplementation during pregnancy and breastfeeding, so it's advisable for pregnant and breastfeeding women to avoid apigenin supplements unless recommended by a healthcare professional.

Wrapping Up: The Power of Apigenin Supplementation

Apigenin, a naturally occurring compound found in various plants, offers a multitude of potential health benefits that span from enhancing immune health to supporting brain function. While human clinical trials are still evolving, research suggests that apigenin treatment may exert anti-cancer effects, reduce the risk of chronic diseases, and even boost testosterone levels.

In exploring the potential benefits of apigenin, individuals may consider incorporating it into their wellness routine through supplements such as NMN Bio's NAD+ Brain, which includes 50 mg of apigenin per serving, alongside other complementary ingredients for brain health and energy.

Researched and reviewed by Dr Elena Seranova, Ph.D.

Dr Seranova holds a master's degree in Translational Neuroscience from the University of Sheffield, UK, and a Ph.D in Stem Cell Biology and Autophagy from the University of Birmingham, UK. She is a published author in multiple peer-reviewed journals, including Cell Reports and Developmental Cell.

References

Amsterdam et al. Chamomile (Matricaria recutita) may provide antidepressant activity in anxious, depressed humans: An exploratory study. Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine. (2012)

Hoensch et al. Prospective cohort comparison of flavonoid treatment in patients with resected colorectal cancer to prevent recurrence. World Journal of Gastroenterology. (2008)

Jung et al. Apigenin Ameliorates Dyslipidemia, Hepatic Steatosis and Insulin Resistance by Modulating Metabolic and Transcriptional Profiles in the Liver of High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice. Nutrients. (2016)

Kramer, D., & Johnson, A. Apigenin: a natural molecule at the intersection of sleep and aging. Frontiers in Nutrition. (2024)

Kumar, S., & Sharma, A. Apigenin: The Anxiolytic Constituent of Turnera aphrodisiaca. Pharmaceutical Biology. (2006)

Li et al. Effects of apigenin on steroidogenesis and steroidogenic acute regulatory gene expression in mouse Leydig cells. Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry. (2011)

Mao et al. Long-term chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.) treatment for generalized anxiety disorder: A randomized clinical trial. Phytomedicine. (2016)

Miao et al. Apigenin alleviates diabetic endothelial dysfunction through activating AMPK/PI3K/Akt/eNOS and Nrf2/HO‐1 signaling pathways. Food Frontiers. (2022)

Ohno et al. Effects of flavonoid phytochemicals on cortisol production and on activities of steroidogenic enzymes in human adrenocortical H295R cells. The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. (2002)

Rahmani et al. The Potential Role of Apigenin in Cancer Prevention and Treatment. Molecules. (2022)

Rodríguez-García C, Sánchez-Quesada C, J Gaforio J. Dietary Flavonoids as Cancer Chemopreventive Agents: An Updated Review of Human Studies. Antioxidants. (2019)

Salehi et al. The Therapeutic Potential of Apigenin. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. (2019)

Yi et al. Antidepressant-like behavioral and neurochemical effects of the citrus-associated chemical apigenin. Life Sciences. (2008)