Phosphatidylserine: Benefits, Dosage and Side Effects

Phosphatidylserine: Benefits, Dosage and Side Effects

Phosphatidylserine: Benefits, Dosage and Side Effects

Phosphatidylserine, often abbreviated as PS, is a compound that has been gaining attention in the world of health and wellness. This naturally occurring phospholipid, crucial for the functioning of brain cells, is a key player in maintaining cognitive health. As we delve into the world of PS, we'll explore its role in the body and how it works to support our brain health.

The benefits of phosphatidylserine are vast and varied. From sharpening memory and potentially aiding in conditions like Alzheimer's disease to helping children with ADHD, PS has shown promising results. It's even been linked to improving mood in cases of major depression and enhancing athletic performance.

However, like any supplement, it's essential to understand the research and studies behind phosphatidylserine. We'll delve into the clinical trials and research findings that have helped shape our understanding of this compound. This will provide a solid foundation for understanding the recommended dosage and potential side effects.

While PS is naturally present in certain foods, it can also be taken as a supplement. We'll explore both dietary and supplemental sources of phosphatidylserine, helping you make an informed decision about whether this supplement is right for you. But remember, like any supplement, an increased intake may lead to adverse effects. Therefore, it's crucial to understand the full picture before incorporating it into your routine.

Understanding Phosphatidylserine

Phosphatidylserine, is a phospholipid that plays a crucial role in the human body. It's a major component of all cell membranes, particularly significant in brain function. This phospholipid is a complex molecule, composed of fatty acids, a platform for these acids, a phosphate, and an alcohol attached to the phosphate. These components arrange themselves into a phospholipid bilayer, forming the critical structure of your cell membranes.

The body can produce phosphatidylserine, but it primarily relies on dietary sources to meet its needs. PS is essential for various cellular activities, especially in the brain. It's involved in bone matrix formation, cell repair, heartbeat coordination, hormone secretion, and even testicular function.

Phosphatidylserine is also a key player in transmitting messages between nerve cells in the brain, protecting brain cells, aiding blood clotting, and potentially maintaining memory sharpness. As we age, our PS levels may decline, but supplements can help counteract this.

Understanding phosphatidylserine and its role in the body is the first step towards appreciating its potential benefits, dosage recommendations, and possible side effects. This section will delve into what phosphatidylserine is and how it works in the body.

What is Phosphatidylserine?

Phosphatidylserine, is a phospholipid, a type of fat molecule that is attached to a phosphate. This unique structure makes it a vital component of all cell membranes, particularly in the brain. PS is a fatty substance that the body produces to facilitate the transmission of messages between nerve cells in the brain. It provides a protective layer for brain cells, aids in blood clotting, and is believed to play a significant role in maintaining memory sharpness.

PS is naturally present in certain foods and is also available as a dietary supplement. It's a phospholipid that contains both amino acids and fatty acids, making it crucial to cellular function, especially in our brains. This is why it's one of the most popular memory supplements, particularly among the elderly. Although our bodies can produce PS, we get most of it from our diet. If you follow a low-fat or low-cholesterol diet or are under chronic stress, you may be deficient in PS.

The best animal source of PS is cow brain, although it's not available in the U.S. due to concerns about mad cow disease. The best plant source is soy lecithin. PS supplementation has been shown in scientific studies to improve conditions such as Alzheimer’s disease, dementia, age-related cognitive decline, ADHD, Parkinson’s disease, and depression. It may also enhance sports performance and reduce stress, anxiety, and depression.

How does it work in the body?

Phosphatidylserine, is a phospholipid that plays a crucial role in the body's cellular function. It's a key component of the cell membrane, the protective layer that surrounds each cell. This phospholipid bilayer, as it's known, is vital for the cell's ability to function effectively. PS is particularly important in the brain, where it aids in the transmission of messages between nerve cells.

In addition to its role in cell communication, PS also contributes to several other bodily functions. It aids in the formation of the bone matrix, the framework that gives bones their strength and rigidity. It's involved in cell repair and removal, a process carried out by the immune system to keep the body healthy. PS also plays a role in coordinating the heartbeat, secreting hormones from the adrenal glands, and supporting testicular function.

Despite the body's ability to produce PS, most of it is obtained from food. However, when dietary intake isn't sufficient or the body's need for PS increases, supplements can be a useful alternative. These supplements have been used to treat a range of conditions, from Alzheimer's disease and age-related cognitive decline to depression and ADHD.

In summary, phosphatidylserine is a vital phospholipid that supports numerous bodily functions, particularly in the brain. Whether obtained from food or supplements, it's an essential component of our cells and overall health.

Phosphatidylserine Benefits

Phosphatidylserine, a phospholipid produced in the body, is a key player in the transmission of messages between nerve cells in the brain. Its protective role for brain cells, contribution to blood clotting, and potential in maintaining memory sharpness make it a substance of interest in the health and wellness sector. This section delves into the benefits of phosphatidylserine, exploring its impact on memory sharpness, Alzheimer's disease, ADHD in children, major depression, mood, and athletic performance.

The potential benefits of phosphatidylserine supplements are vast, ranging from cognitive enhancements to mood regulation and athletic performance improvement. As we delve into each sub-topic, we'll explore the research and studies that support these claims, providing a comprehensive understanding of the role phosphatidylserine plays in our overall health and wellbeing.

Memory Sharpness & Alzheimer's Disease

Phosphatidylserine supplements have shown promising results in enhancing memory sharpness and mitigating the symptoms of Alzheimer's disease. Clinical trials have demonstrated that a daily intake of 300 milligrams of phosphatidylserine can lead to significant improvements in cognition and overall well-being in Alzheimer's patients, particularly those in the early stages of the disease.

However, it's worth noting that the effectiveness of phosphatidylserine appears to diminish over time, and the majority of these studies have utilised phosphatidylserine derived from cow brains, leaving the efficacy of plant-based phosphatidylserine somewhat uncertain. Further comprehensive trials are required to substantiate these findings and explore the long-term benefits of phosphatidylserine supplements for memory sharpness and Alzheimer's disease.

ADHD and Children

Phosphatidylserine, often combined with omega-3 fatty acids, has shown potential in reducing ADHD symptoms in children. Clinical trials involving 236 children have demonstrated promising initial results, particularly in hyperactive-impulsive, emotionally and behaviourally-dysregulated ADHD children. A 2012 study published in European Psychiatry, for instance, found that children with ADHD who were treated with a supplement containing phosphatidylserine and omega-3 fatty acids experienced a significant reduction in hyperactive/impulsive behaviour and an improvement in mood.

Another study in 2014 compared the effects of phosphatidylserine to a placebo in children diagnosed with ADHD. The results showed significant improvement in auditory memory, inattention, and impulsivity in the treatment group after two months. However, this study was small, involving only 36 children, and further larger studies are needed to assess safety and efficacy. Phosphatidylserine has been shown to increase mental focus, promote memory and cognition, boost mood, and relieve stress through a reduction of cortisol levels, all of which can be beneficial for individuals with ADHD.

Major Depression and Mood

Phosphatidylserine's potential role in mood regulation has been a subject of interest in the scientific community. A study published in Mental Illness in 2015, for instance, involved participants over 65 years of age suffering from major depression. They were administered a supplement containing phosphatidylserine, along with omega-3 fatty acids DHA and EPA, three times daily for a period of 12 weeks. The results were promising, with an improvement in depression scale scores observed at the end of the study.

However, it's crucial to note that this study alone cannot definitively attribute the benefits to phosphatidylserine, DHA, EPA, or the combination of these supplements. Furthermore, a small clinical trial involving 10 older women found that a daily intake of 300 mg of phosphatidylserine helped reduce depressive symptoms. This compound also influences the levels of mood-related neurotransmitters in the brain, and research indicates it can decrease the severity of depression. Despite these promising findings, more extensive, well-designed clinical studies are needed before phosphatidylserine can be recommended for depression.

Athletic Performance

Phosphatidylserine supplements have been linked to enhanced athletic performance, with research indicating potential benefits in increasing exercise capacity. This is particularly significant for athletes, as exercise capacity is a key determinant of sustained performance and overall aerobic endurance.

In clinical trials, phosphatidylserine has shown promising results. For instance, a dosage of 750 mg was found to increase exercise duration in a group of 14 men. Another study revealed that a daily intake of 400 mg reduced post-exercise fatigue, although it's worth noting that caffeine, a known stimulant, may have contributed to these effects. Furthermore, phosphatidylserine's impact on the stress response, specifically its ability to decrease the secretion of ACTH, a hormone that triggers cortisol, could explain its potential benefits for athletic performance. However, it's important to mention that in a smaller trial involving 8 men, phosphatidylserine did not protect against muscle soreness and damage. Therefore, more comprehensive clinical trials are needed to fully understand the potential effects of phosphatidylserine on athletic performance.

Phosphatidylserine: Research & Studies

Delving into the realm of phosphatidylserine, a phospholipid of paramount importance in brain function, we find a myriad of studies and research that have attempted to unravel its potential benefits and side effects. This section will explore the various clinical trials and studies that have been conducted, shedding light on the role of phosphatidylserine supplements in cognitive function, stress relief, and more.

Despite the plethora of studies, it's crucial to note that most are small and dated, with no valid clinical evidence supporting the use of phosphatidylserine for any specific conditions. However, these studies, ranging from animal studies to cell-based research and low-quality clinical trials, provide a foundation for further investigation.

In this section, we will also delve into the research findings, providing a comprehensive overview of the current knowledge on phosphatidylserine. From the potential anti-apoptotic effect of phosphatidylserine in neuronal cells to its possible role in preventing autoimmune demyelination, the research findings are as diverse as they are intriguing.

As we navigate through the complex world of phosphatidylserine research, remember that these studies should not be interpreted as supportive of any health benefit. Instead, they serve as a stepping stone for further exploration into the potential of this fascinating phospholipid. We have included phosphatidylserine in our nootropic, anti-aging blend, the NAD+ Brain, as it was an obvious choice for a product that aims to enhance cognitive performance. Try it out today and let us know what you think!


Clinical Trials and Studies

Clinical trials and studies have been instrumental in understanding the potential benefits and side effects of phosphatidylserine supplements. A double-blind, randomized, controlled study conducted in 1986 on senile demented patients showed some promising results, although the study's small scale and age limit its relevance today. Another double-blind cross-over study in 1992 focused on patients with early dementia of the Alzheimer type, but again, the results were inconclusive due to the study's limitations.

In 1998, a study explored the hormonal and perceptive effects of phosphatidylserine administration during two weeks of resistive exercise-induced overtraining. The results were intriguing, but further research is needed to confirm these findings. A more recent randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial in 2014 investigated the effect of phosphatidylserine administration on memory and symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, providing some interesting insights.

Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) where phosphatidylserine was given at 300–600 mg per day for 3–6 months in adults over age 50 did not note significantly increased adverse effects in the phosphatidylserine groups compared to the control groups. However, in children with ADHD given phosphatidylserine, there were some cases of gastrointestinal discomfort. This discomfort may be minimized by consuming phosphatidylserine with food.

In conclusion, while these clinical trials and studies provide some insight into the potential benefits and side effects of phosphatidylserine, more comprehensive and up-to-date research is needed to fully understand its effects.

Research Findings

The research findings on phosphatidylserine are intriguing, albeit limited. A study involving a supplement blend containing phosphatidylserine, omega-3 fatty acids, Ginkgo biloba, and B vitamins showed promising results. After a six-month trial, the 27 older women participants experienced improved mobility. However, it's important to note that other ingredients in the supplement may have contributed to these results.

In another small clinical trial, a daily dosage of 300 mg of phosphatidylserine was administered to 10 older women. The results were encouraging, with a noticeable reduction in depressive symptoms. This suggests a potential role for phosphatidylserine in mood regulation, although further research is needed to confirm these findings.

Phosphatidylserine's potential to enhance physical performance has also been explored. It's been suggested that it could improve an athlete's capacity for sustained exercise and overall aerobic endurance. However, this is based on limited evidence and requires further investigation.

In conclusion, while the research findings on phosphatidylserine are promising, they are based on small, dated studies. More comprehensive, up-to-date trials are needed to fully understand the potential benefits and side effects of phosphatidylserine supplements.

Dosage and Side Effects

Phosphatidylserine, a naturally occurring phospholipid, has been extensively studied for its potential health benefits. However, like any supplement, it's crucial to understand the recommended dosage and potential side effects before incorporating it into your routine. Clinical trials have indicated that a dosage of 600 milligrams per day for adults and 150 milligrams per day for children is generally safe and well-tolerated. However, exceeding these recommended dosages may lead to increased adverse effects.

While phosphatidylserine is typically well-tolerated, potential side effects can occur. These can range from mild symptoms such as upset stomach and insomnia to more severe reactions like severe headache, confusion, and serious heart symptoms. It's important to note that these side effects are rare, and most patients tolerate the supplement well.

If you're considering phosphatidylserine supplementation, it's crucial to consult with your doctor first, especially if you're currently on other medications. Your doctor can provide personalised advice based on your health status and potential interactions with other drugs.

Lastly, it's worth noting that phosphatidylserine is now typically sourced from soy extracts, which eliminates the risk of contamination and disease transmission associated with its historical source - cow brain tissue. However, if you have a shellfish allergy, it's advisable to look for phosphatidylserine made from sunflower or other non-shellfish sources.

Recommended Dosage

Phosphatidylserine, often abbreviated as PS, is a supplement that comes in various dosages, typically ranging from 100 to 200 milligrams per day for adults. The specific dosage you should take can vary depending on your age, health condition, and the reason for taking the supplement. For instance, if you're dealing with stress-related sleep issues, a healthcare provider might suggest a nightly dosage of 100 to 200 milligrams of PS.

In clinical trials, dosages of 600 milligrams per day for 12 weeks have been deemed safe and well-tolerated in adults, while a dosage of 150 milligrams per day for 30 weeks was found to be safe in children. However, it's crucial to remember that these dosages were used in controlled clinical settings and may not apply to all individuals.

The form of PS supplement can also influence the dosage. PS supplements are available in various forms, including capsules, softgels, tablets, and powder. The source of the PS, whether animal or vegetable-derived, can also play a role in the dosage. Vegetable-derived sources, such as soybean, are generally considered safer due to the lower risk of infectious diseases.

Lastly, it's important to note that while PS supplements have not been approved by the FDA for medical use, they are widely used for various health conditions. Always consult with your doctor before starting any new supplement regimen, including PS. Your healthcare provider can provide guidance on the optimal dosage for your specific needs and monitor for any potential interactions with other medications you may be taking.

Potential Side Effects

Phosphatidylserine, while generally well-tolerated, can present a range of side effects. Commonly, patients report symptoms such as upset stomach, gas, insomnia, headache, skin rash, mood changes, and low blood sugar. These side effects are typically mild and manageable. However, in rare instances, more severe reactions can occur. These may include serious heart symptoms, severe headache, confusion, slurred speech, severe weakness, vomiting, loss of coordination, feeling unsteady, and severe nervous system reaction.

In the event of experiencing any of these severe symptoms, it is crucial to contact your doctor immediately. It's also important to note that individuals with a shellfish allergy should opt for phosphatidylserine made from sunflower or other non-shellfish sources to avoid potential allergic reactions.

Moreover, taking higher than the recommended dosage of this supplement can lead to increased adverse effects. For instance, doses over 300 milligrams may cause insomnia and upset stomach. Therefore, it's essential to adhere to the recommended dosage and consult with your doctor before starting any new supplement regimen, especially if you're taking other medications.

Lastly, phosphatidylserine should not be taken if you're on any type of blood thinner, and caution should be exercised when combining it with natural blood-thinning supplements like ginkgo biloba. Always discuss your current medications and health concerns with a healthcare provider before beginning a phosphatidylserine regimen.

Phosphatidylserine usage in Diet and Supplements

Phosphatidylserine, a phospholipid, is a vital component of our brain's nerve cells, playing a crucial role in transmitting messages and maintaining memory sharpness. It's found in abundance in the brain, but studies suggest that its levels may decline with age. This has led to the popularity of phosphatidylserine supplements, which are believed to counteract this decline and offer a host of other potential benefits.

These supplements, available in oral tablets or capsules, are often used to enhance mental focus, mood, and memory. They're also touted for their potential to promote healthy sleep, improve exercise performance, and even increase exercise capacity. However, it's essential to follow the instructions on the label and consult with a healthcare provider before starting any new supplement regimen.

Phosphatidylserine is not just limited to supplements; it's also naturally present in certain foods. Dietary sources of phosphatidylserine include soy, a common ingredient in many diets. Incorporating these foods into your diet can be another way to boost your phosphatidylserine levels.

Whether you choose to get your phosphatidylserine from diet or supplements, it's clear that this phospholipid plays a significant role in our brain health and overall well-being. As we continue to explore its benefits, dosage, and potential side effects, it's evident that phosphatidylserine is a key player in our health and wellness journey.

Dietary Sources

Phosphatidylserine, a vital component for brain health, is not abundantly found in most foods, making it challenging to obtain sufficient amounts through diet alone. While animal brains are rich in phosphatidylserine, their consumption is generally discouraged due to potential risks of infectious brain diseases.

The highest dietary source of phosphatidylserine is soy lecithin, derived from soybeans. Other notable sources include Atlantic mackerel, chicken heart, and Atlantic herring. However, even these sources may not provide enough phosphatidylserine to meet the increased requirements caused by factors such as aging and stress.

Modern diets, particularly those low in cholesterol and fat, may lack up to 150 milligrams per day of dietary phosphatidylserine. Vegetarian diets may undersupply as much as 200 to 250 milligrams per day.

Given these challenges, it's crucial to consult with a healthcare provider to ensure you're getting enough phosphatidylserine from your diet. They can provide guidance on incorporating phosphatidylserine-rich foods into your meals or suggest suitable supplements if necessary.

Supplemental Sources

Phosphatidylserine (PS) supplements are a popular choice for those seeking to enhance their cognitive function and overall health. These supplements are typically derived from either animal or plant sources, with soybean being a common vegetarian option. The preference for vegetable-derived sources, such as soy, is largely due to the reduced risk of infectious diseases associated with them.

However, it's crucial to remember that the quality, safety, and efficacy of these supplements are not guaranteed by regulatory bodies like the FDA. This lack of regulation means that manufacturers are not required to prove their products' safety or effectiveness before selling them. Therefore, it's essential to consult with a healthcare provider before starting any new supplement regimen.

The dosage of PS supplements can vary, but clinical trials often use a range of 200-400 mg/day. However, this dosage may not be suitable for everyone, and it's important to work with your healthcare provider to determine the optimal dosage for your specific health condition and other factors.

Lastly, it's important to inform your healthcare provider about any supplements you're taking, including those bought without a prescription. This allows them to monitor for potential side effects or interactions with other medications. Remember, your health should always be the top priority when considering any dietary changes or supplements.

Final Thoughts on Phosphatidylserine

Phosphatidylserine, a phospholipid found in high amounts in the brain, has been the subject of numerous studies due to its potential benefits. It's been linked to improved mental focus, memory, and mood, and even enhanced athletic performance. However, it's crucial to remember that while these benefits are promising, they are not guaranteed for everyone.

The dosage of phosphatidylserine is a key factor in its effectiveness. Most studies have used it for up to six months, with doses over 300 milligrams potentially leading to side effects such as insomnia and upset stomach. It's also important to note that individuals taking blood thinners should avoid phosphatidylserine, and caution should be exercised when combining it with natural blood-thinning supplements like ginkgo biloba.

While phosphatidylserine is naturally present in certain foods, it's also available as a dietary supplement. However, increased dosage can lead to increased adverse effects, so it's essential to follow the recommended dosage guidelines.

In conclusion, phosphatidylserine offers a range of potential benefits, from improved memory sharpness to enhanced athletic performance. We particularly are enjoying the brain health benefits of it though. There is 50mg of Phosphatidylserine per serving in our NAD+ Brain blend, and the reason is simple: PS is not only a wonderful standalone ingredient, but it also aids the other compounds in the blend to cross the blood brain barrier more efficiently.